All powerful Zeus, with his lightning bolts,
Dispenses his favors in enlightening jolts.
CHAPTER X: THE WHEEL OF FORTUNE
Zeus is the king of the Gods, and as such permeates the universe with his
force manifesting as energy, light, and matter. He is the motivator
behind the religious and philosophical urge, particularly metaphysics and
natural philosophy. He structures our societies through patriarchy
and our individual father-complexes. Offspring of Cronos and Rhea,
Zeus is the head of the Olympian Gods and belongs to the trinity of the
father-authority principle with his brothers Poseidon and Hades.
As the ultimate authority, he comes closest to embodying the archetype
of the Self.
The Self is a Jungian term for the Absolute. It is the ordering and
unifying principle which guides the process of spiritual development.
We sense the quality of the Self when we can envision our future selves
actualizing our spiritual potential. The Self is the God-image in
our psyches. It represents the fullest extension and potential of an individual,
and provides transcendent experience of the highest spiritual value which
comes from beyond one's own personal powers. The inner spiritual
resources, termed Zeus by the Greeks, lie deep within our inner nature,
a metaphor of Light. Zeus is the image of wholeness, presented in
the masculine version.
The ancients thought of Zeus as a weather god, the sky god who controlled
storms and lightning. However, in our daily life, he also governs
our internal weather conditions and may manifest his powers in psychic
storms (psychological disruptions).
Zeus is the master of wise judgement and justice. His deep attachment
to his daughter Athena personifies his philosophic attitude. Zeus
is the prototypical philosopher, or "lover of wisdom." Zeus has the
capacity to temper severity with mercy and compassion. He embodies
not only the law, but that creative energy which is the constant urge to
spill out and propagate itself. His unceasing urge to impregnate
and project himself led to his numerous love affairs with mortals and goddesses.
Zeus is that energy constantly striving to realize new consciousness or
new fruits of itself, reflecting his all-embracing expansiveness.
Self-appointed "followers of Zeus" seek out numerous lovers in accordance
with Zeus' principle of wisdom. This doesn't mean that no complications
or consequences will follow. Just wait until Hera finds out!
A man with a Zeus-like temperament is very likely in a position of power,
leadership, and service in the community. He employs his wisdom and
good will when he exercises his authority. He is a man with cultural
awareness, and behaves accordingly for the benefit of himself and others.
He combines an intelligent, healthy mind with a robust body.
This archetype corresponds with Trump X, THE WHEEL OF FORTUNE. Zeus
and other thunder gods have traditional relationships with the Wheel of
the Zodiac. This depicts the Game of Life which Zeus plays so well.
He uses intuition and systematic thinking to further his aims. This
path is symbolized as the palm of the hand. A person who is the seeming
master of his own fate or lucky, seems to have the world "in the palm of
his hand." Good fortune is a gift of the gods, a gift of destiny.
In esoteric astrology the Jupiter center is linked with the solar plexus.
In Indian philosophy, the solar plexus is the power chakra, from which
this energy is distributed throughout the rest of the body. It is
perceived as an internal whirling force within the subtle body, and expressed
in personality and experience. It is our fate, fortune, or destiny
in dynamic action, with its cycles of good fortune and setbacks.
It is the activity of evolution. The Jupiter center is roughly in
the center of the body and controls higher evolutionary development, through
the subconscious. This nerve plexus functions like an "abdominal
brain" for physical and visceral processes.
The Wheel is a vortex of force with a stable center. It is the strange
attractor of a life--it's destiny. THE WHEEL OF FORTUNE symbolizes
the energies of a master field, a universal field. And we access
that field through our solar plexus. It is here, not the heart center,
where we store our energy, whether that is love and healing, or tension
and conflict. We exchange energies with other people from this center
also. A negative Zeus-type might be effective, but could also be
viewed as bossy, or self-righteous in his authoritarianism. People
who set themselves up as moral authorities must dispense judgements.
When these judgements are severe, they seem like thunderbolts hurled at
Qabala teaches ghat the secret of mastering circumstances is to be found
in realizing that the center, the very heart of the Wheel, the primary
Point of first Unity, is our only safe habitation. When we are identified
with the ruling power which keeps us in balance, which keeps the wheeling
activities of cosmic cycles in blance, we are simultaneously ath the beginning
and end of our quest, since they are really the same place.
Zeus-consciousness has to do with the development of a strong, effectively
coping ego, which does not tolerate the thwarting of its will. If
we fall into an identification with this principle of ego-strength (father-complex),
we may find ourselves dispensing similar judgements, as if we embodied
The shadow-side of this complex is shown, for example, in high-powered
politicians who sometimes cross over the line as if they were above the
law--a law unto themselves. They rationalize, deny, and delude themselves
that the ends justify the means. We are possessed by Zeus when we
act like God-Almighty. Identification of the ego with the powers
of the archetype of Self results in an ego inflation. The ego gets
puffed up with air, acting proud, pompous, vain, and presumptuous.
When we are caught in an inflation (ego-trip) our ego tries to take credit
for the transcendent qualities of the Self.
This may be overcome by developing a conscious awareness of the transpersonal
aspect of the Zeus principle. In its positive manifestation it is
an increased capacity for objective judgement. To experience this,
the ego must give up its false-pride. Overcoming false pride is a
major goal of spiritual development. The original purpose of the
"I" or ego is to know the universe. The actual meaning of the word
'Zeus' stems from djeu - meaning the moment or event of lighting up.
This is a lighting up, not strictly in the physical sense, but also in
the sense of insight and illumination. We get this sense when we
dialogue with our subconscious and it yields an answering oracle.
This "I-Self" dialogue takes many forms.
Really, there is no distinction to be made between lighting up in the physical
or metaphysical sense. The experience of illumination is just as
real whether caused by a material source or not. It is Zeus who controls
not only the panorama of meteorological phenomena, but also the domain
of consciousness. Zeus connects with all the forms of heavenly light,
of both inner and outer world. His essence appears as photons (quanta
of electromagnetic energy), lightning, and illumination. He is the
archetypal illuminator who "lights up our lives." The type of love
which could be described as "lightning striking from above" come in like
an electric flash. It is Zeus entering the mortal frame.
The religious view of the natural event we call lightning or lighting up
doesn't necessarily require an agent apart from and outside the action.
THE GOD IS THE EFFECT. This is his epiphany. Such a division
of experience into action and agent is excluded by the immediacy of the
experience in its first actual moment. Only afterward is there a
name attached to the event, and even later an abstraction derived from
the experience. For a religious experience, event and man are enough.
According to C. Kerenyi (1975), "With the Greeks the event at which 'Theos!'
could be called out could happen not only in dreams but also in nature
and in history and simultaneously in the additional dimension of spirit."
In "Inflation for Beginners", John Gribbin states that no self-respecting
theory of the Universe is complete without a reference to inflation --
and at the same time there is now a bewildering variety of different versions
of inflation to choose from.
Inflation is a general term for models of the very early Universe which
involve a short period of extremely rapid (exponential) expansion, blowing
the size of what is now the observable Universe up from a region far smaller
than a proton to about the size of a grapefruit (or even bigger) in a small
fraction of a second. This process would smooth out spacetime to make the
Universe flat, and would also resolve the horizon problem by taking regions
of space that were once close enough to have got to know each other well
and spreading them far apart, on opposite sides of the visible Universe
Inflation became established as the standard model of the very early Universe
in the 1980s. It achieved this success not only because it resolves many
puzzles about the nature of the Universe, but because it did so using the
grand unified theories (GUTs) and understanding of quantum theory developed
by particle physicists completely independently of any cosmological studies.
These theories of the particle world had been developed with no thought
that they might be applied in cosmology (they were in no sense "designed"
to tackle all the problems they turned out to solve), and their success
in this area suggested to many people that they must be telling us something
of fundamental importance about the Universe.
The marriage of particle physics (the study of the very small) and cosmology
(the study of the very large) seems to provide an explanation of how the
Universe began, and how it got to be the way it is. Inflation is therefore
regarded as the most important development in cosmological thinking since
the discovery that the Universe is expanding first suggested that it began
in a Big Bang. Taken at face value, the observed expansion of the
Universe implies that it was born out of a singularity, a point of infinite
density, some 15 billion years ago (cosmologists still disagree about exactly
how old the Universe is, but the exact age doesn't affect the argument).
Quantum physics tells us that it is meaningless to talk in quite such extreme
terms, and that instead we should consider the expansion as having started
from a region no bigger across than the so-called Planck length (10-35m),
when the density was not infinite but "only" some 1094 grams per cubic
centimetre. These are the absolute limits on size and density allowed by
The first puzzle is how anything that dense could ever expand -- it would
have an enormously strong gravitational field, turning it into a black
hole and snuffing it out of existence (back into the singularity) as soon
as it was born. But it turns out that inflation can prevent this happening,
while quantum physics allows the entire Universe to appear, in this supercompact
form, out of nothing at all, as a cosmic free lunch. The idea that the
Universe may have appeared out of nothing at all, and contains zero energy
overall, was developed by Edward Tryon, of the City University in New York,
who suggested in the 1970s, that it might have appeared out of nothing
as a so-called vacuum fluctuation, allowed by quantum theory.
Quantum uncertainty allows the temporary creation of bubbles of energy,
or pairs of particles (such aselectron-positron pairs) out of nothing,
provided that they disappear in a short time. The less energy is involved,
the longer the bubble can exist. Curiously, the energy in a gravitational
field is negative, while the energy locked up in matter is positive. If
the Universe is exactly flat , then as Tryon pointed out the two numbers
cancel out, and the overall energy of the Universe is precisely zero. In
that case, the quantum rules allow it to last forever. Unfortunately,
if a quantum bubble (about as big as the Planck length) containing all
the mass-energy of the Universe (or even a star) did appear out of nothing
at all, its intense gravitational field would (unless something else intervened)
snuff it out of existence immediately, crushing it into a singularity.
So the free lunch Universe seemed at first like an irrelevant speculation
-- but, as with the problems involving the extreme flatness of spacetime,
and its appearance of extreme homogeneity and isotropy (most clearly indicated
by the uniformity of the background radiation), the development of the
inflationary scenario showed how to remove this difficulty and allow such
a quantum fluctuation to expand exponentially up to macroscopic size before
gravity could crush it out of existence.. All of these problems would be
resolved if something gave the Universe a violent outward push (in effect,
acting like antigravity) when it was still about a Planck length in size.
Such a small region of space would be too tiny, initially, to contain irregularities,
so it would start off homogeneous and isotropic. There would have been
plenty of time for signals travelling at the speed of light to have criss-crossed
the ridiculously tiny volume, so there is no horizon problem -- both sides
of the embryonic universe are "aware" of each other. And spacetime itself
gets flattened by the expansion, in much the same way that the wrinkly
surface of a prune becomes a smooth, flat surface when the prune is placed
in water and swells up. As in the standard Big Bang model, we can still
think of the Universe as like the skin of an expanding balloon, but now
we have to think of it as an absolutely enormous balloon that was hugely
inflated during the first split second of its existence.
The reason why the GUTs created such a sensation when they were applied
to cosmology is that they predict the existence of exactly the right kind
of mechanisms to do this trick. They are called scalar fields, and they
are associated with the splitting apart of the original grand unified force
into the fundamental forces we know today, as the Universe began to expand
and cool. Gravity itself would have split off at the Planck time, 10-43
of a second, and the strong nuclear force by about 10(exp-35) of a second.
Within about 10-32 of a second, the scalar fields would have done their
work, doubling the size of the Universe at least once every 10-34 of a
second (some versions of inflation suggest even more rapid expansion than
Curiously, this kind of exponential expansion of spacetime is exactly described
by one of the first cosmological models developed using the general theory
of relativity, by Willem de Sitter in 1917. For more than half a century,
this de Sitter model seemed to be only a mathematical curiosity, of no
relevance to the real Universe; but it is now one of the cornerstones of
inflationary cosmology. When the general
theory of relativity was published in 1916, de Sitter reviewed the theory
and developed his own ideas in a series of three papers which he sent to
the Royal Astronomical Society in London. The third of these papers included
discussion of possible cosmological models -- both what turned out to be
an expanding universe (the first model of this kind to be developed, although
the implications were not fully appreciated in 1917) and an oscillating
The inflationary scenario has already gone through several stages of development
during its short history. The first inflationary model was developed by
Alexei Starobinsky, at the L. D. Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics
in Moscow, at the end of the 1970s -- but it was not then called "inflation".
It was a very complicated model based on a quantum theory of gravity, but
it caused a sensation among cosmologists in what was then the Soviet Union,
becoming known as the "Starobinsky model" of the Universe; the news did
not spread outside their country.
In 1981, Alan Guth, then at MIT, published a different version of the inflationary
scenario, not knowing anything of Starobinsky's work. This version was
more accessible in both senses of the word -- it was easier to understand,
and Guth was based in the US, able to discuss his ideas freely with colleagues
around the world. And as a bonus, Guth came up with the catchy name "inflation"
for the process he was describing. There were obvious flaws with the specific
details of Guth's original model (which he acknowledged at the time). In
particular, Guth's model left the Universe after inflation filled with
a mess of bubbles, all expanding in their own way and colliding with one
another. We see no evidence for these bubbles in the real Universe, so
obviously the simplest model of inflation couldn't be right. But it was
this version of the idea that made every cosmologist aware of the power
In October 1981, there was an international meeting in Moscow, where inflation
was a major talking point. Stephen Hawking presented a paper claiming that
inflation could not be made to work at all, but the Russian cosmologist
Andrei Linde presented an improved version, called "new inflation", which
got around the difficulties with Guth's model. Ironically, Linde was the
official translator for Hawking's talk, and had the embarrassing task of
offering the audience the counter-argument to his own work! But after the
formal presentations Hawking was persuaded that Linde was right, and inflation
might be made to work after all.
If there was part of some larger region of spacetime in which all kinds
of scalar fields were at work, then only the regions in which those fields
produced inflation could lead to the emergence of a large universe like
our own. Linde called this "chaotic inflation", because the scalar
fields can have any value at different places in the early super-universe;
it is the standard version of inflation today, and can be regarded as an
example of the kind of reasoning associated with the anthropic principle
(but note that this use of the term "chaos" is like the everyday meaning
implying a complicated mess, and has nothing to do with the mathematical
subject known as "chaos theory").
The idea of chaotic inflation led to what is (so far) the ultimate development
of the inflationary scenario. The great unanswered question in standard
Big Bang cosmology is what came "before" the singularity. It is often said
that the question is meaningless, since time itself began at the singularity.
But chaotic inflation suggests that our Universe grew out of a quantum
fluctuation in some pre-existing region of spacetime, and that exactly
equivalent processes can create regions of inflation within our own Universe.
In effect, new universes bud off from our Universe, and our Universe may
itself have budded off from another universe, in a process which had no
beginning and will have no end. A variation on this theme suggests that
the "budding" process takes place through black holes, and that every time
a black hole collapses into a singularity it "bounces" out into another
set of spacetime dimensions, creating a new inflationary universe -- this
is called the baby universe scenario.
There are similarities between the idea of eternal inflation and a self-reproducing
universe and the version of the Steady State hypothesis developed in England
by Fred Hoyle and Jayant Narlikar, with their C-field playing the part
of the scalar field that drives inflation. Modern proponents of the
inflationary scenario arrived at these equations entirely independently
of Hoyle's approach, and are reluctant to accept this analogy, having cut
their cosmological teeth on the Big Bang model. Indeed, when Guth
was asked, in 1980, how the then new idea of inflation related to the Steady
State theory, he is reported as replying "what is the Steady State theory?"
But although inflation is generally regarded as a development of Big Bang
cosmology, it is better seen as marrying the best features of both the
Big Bang and the Steady State scenarios.
The theory said that inflation should have left behind an expanded version
of these fluctuations, in the form of irregularities in the distribution
of matter and energy in the Universe. These density perturbations would
have left an imprint on the background radiation at the time matter and
radiation decoupled (about 300,000 years after the Big Bang), producing
exactly the kind of nonuniformity in the background radiation that has
now been seen, initially by COBE and later by other instruments. After
decoupling, the density fluctuations grew to become the large scale structure
of the Universe revealed today by the distribution of galaxies. This means
that the COBE observations are actually giving us information about what
was happening in the Universe when it was less than 10-20 of a second old.
No other theory can explain both why the Universe is so uniform overall,
and yet contains exactly the kind of "ripples" represented by the
distribution of galaxies through space and by the variations in the background
radiation. This does not prove that the inflationary scenario is correct,
but it is worth remembering that had COBE found a different pattern of
fluctuations (or no fluctuations at all) that would have proved the inflationary
scenario wrong. In the best scientific tradition, the theory made
a major and unambiguous prediction which did "come true". Inflation also
predicts that the primordial perturbations may have left a trace in the
form of gravitational radiation with particular characteristics, and it
is hoped that detectors sensitive enough to identify this characteristic
radiation may be developed within the next ten or twenty years.
Standard models of inflation solve the "monopole problem" by arguing that
the seed from which our entire visible Universe grew was a quantum fluctuation
so small that it only contained one monopole. That monopole is still out
there, somewhere in the Universe, but it is highly unlikely that it will
ever pass our way. But Linde has discovered
that, according to theory, the conditions that create inflation persist
inside a magnetic monopole even after inflation has halted in the Universe
at large. Such a monopole would look like a magnetically charged black
hole, connecting our Universe through a wormhole in spacetime to another
region of inflating spacetime. Within this region of inflation, quantum
processes can produce monopole-antimonopole pairs, which then separate
exponentially rapidly as a result of the inflation. Inflation then stops,
leaving an expanding Universe rather like our own which may contain one
or two monopoles, within each of which there are more regions of inflating
The result is a never-ending fractal structure, with inflating universes
embedded inside each other and connected through the magnetic monopole
wormholes. Our Universe may be inside a monopole which is inside another
universe which is inside another monopole, and so on indefinitely. What
Linde calls "the continuous creation of exponentially expanding space"
means that "monopoles by themselves can solve the monopole problem". Although
it seems bizarre, the idea is, he stresses, "so simple that it certainly
deserves further investigation".
Now comes the suggestion that the "ordinary" place to find
observers like us may be in the middle of a bubble in a much greater volume
of expanding space. The conventional version of inflation says that
our entire visible Universe is just one of many bubbles of inflation, each
doing their own thing somewhere out in an eternal sea of chaotic inflation,
but that the process of rapid expansion forces spacetime in all the bubbles
to be flat. A useful analogy is with the bubbles that form in a bottle
of fizzy cola when the top is opened. But that suggestion, along with other
cherished cosmological beliefs, has now been challenged by Linde, working
with his son Dmitri Linde (of CalTech) and Arthur Mezhlumian (also of Stanford).
Linde and his colleagues point out that the Universe we live in is like
a hole in a sea of superdense, exponentially expanding inflationary cosmic
material, within which there are other holes. All kinds of bubble universes
will exist, and it is possible to work out the statistical nature of their
properties. In particular, the two Lindes and Mezhlumian have calculated
the probability of finding yourself in a region of this super- Universe
with a particular density -- for example, the density of "our" Universe.
Because very dense regions blow up exponentially quickly (doubling in size
every fraction of a second), it turns out that the volume of all regions
of the super-Universe with twice any chosen density is 10 to the power
of 10 million times greater than the volume of the super- Universe with
the chosen density. For any chosen density, most of the matter at that
density is near the middle of an expanding bubble, with a concentration
of more dense material round the edge of the bubble. But even though some
of the higher density material is round the edges of low density
bubbles, there is even more (vastly more!) higher density material in the
middle of higher density bubbles, and so on forever. The discovery of this
on the theme of fractal structure surprised the researchers so much
that they confirmed it by four independent methods before venturing to
announce it to their colleagues. Because the density distribution is non-uniform
on the appropriate distance scales, it means that not only may we
be living near the middle of a bubble universe, but that the density of
the region of space we can see may be less than the critical density, compensated
for by extra density beyond our field of view.
There is a simpler solution to the density puzzle, one which involves tinkering
only with the models of inflation, not with long-held and cherished cosmological
beliefs. That may make it more acceptable to most cosmologists -- and it's
so simple that it falls into the "why didn't I think of that?" category
of great ideas. A double dose of inflation
may be something to make the Government's hair turn grey -- but it could
be just what cosmologists need to rescue their favourite theory of the
origin of the Universe. By turning inflation on twice, they have found
a way to have all the benefits of the inflationary scenario, while still
leaving the Universe in an "open"state, so that it will expand forever.
In those simplest inflation models, remember, the big snag is that after
inflation even the observable Universe is left like a mass of bubbles,
each expanding in its own way. We see no sign of this structure, which
has led to all the refinements of the basic model. Now, however, Martin
Bucher and Neil Turok, of Princeton University, working with Alfred Goldhaber,
of the State University of New York, have turned this difficulty to advantage.
They suggest that after the Universe had been homogenised by the original
bout of inflation, a second burst of inflation could have occurred
within one of the bubbles. As inflation begins (essentially at a point),
the density is effectively "reset" to zero, and rises towards the critical
density as inflation proceeds and energy from the inflation process is
turned into mass. But because the Universe has already been homogenised,
there is no need to require this bout of inflation to last until
the density reaches the critical value. It can stop a little sooner, leaving
an open bubble (what we see as our entire visible Universe) to carry on
expanding at a more sedate rate. They actually use what looked like the
fatal flaw in Guth's model as the basis for their scenario.
According to Bucher and his colleagues, an end product looking very much
like the Universe we live in can arise naturally in this way, with no "fine
tuning" of the inflationary parameters. All they have done is to use the
very simplest possible version of inflation, going back to Alan Guth's
work, but to apply it twice. And you don't have to stop there. Once any
portion of expanding spacetime has been smoothed out by inflation, new
inflationary bubbles arising inside that volume of spacetime will all be
pre-smoothed and can end up with any amount of matter from zero to the
critical density (but no more). This should be enough to make everybody
happy. Indeed, the biggest problem now is that the vocabulary of
cosmology doesn't quite seem adequate to the task of describing all this
The term Universe, with the capital "U", is usually used for everything
that we can ever have knowledge of, the entire span of space and time accessible
to our instruments, now and in the future. This may seem like a fairly
comprehensive definition, and in the past it has traditionally been regarded
as synonymous with the entirety of everything that exists. But the development
of ideas such as inflation suggests that there may be something else beyond
the boundaries of the observable Universe -- regions of space and time
that are unobservable in principle, not just because light from them has
not yet had time to reach us, or because our telescopes are not sensitive
enough to detect their light.
This has led to some ambiguity in the use of the term "Universe". Some
people restrict it to the observable Universe, while others argue that
it should be used to refer to all of space and time. If we use "Universe"
as the name for our own expanding bubble of spacetime, everything that
is in principle visible to our telescopes, then maybe the term "Cosmos"
can be used to refer to the entirety of space and time, within which (if
the inflationary scenario is correct) there may be an indefinitely large
number of other expanding bubbles of spacetime, other universes with which
we can never communicate.
LONG LIVE INFLATION. An underdense universe doesn't sink cosmic inflation.
Lately, observational astronomers have at last convinced theorists that
the universe contains less matter
than the theory of inflation predicts. The expansion of the universe, as
traced by distant supernovae and radio-bright galaxies, is decelerating
too slowly. The mass of galaxy clusters, as deduced from their internal
motions and their ability to focus the light of more distant objects, is
too low. The number of these clusters, which should be growing if there
is sufficient raw material, has changed too little. And the abundance of
deuterium, which is inversely related to the total amount of matter, is
too high. It seems there is only a third of the matter needed for geometric
flatness, the expected outcome of inflation.
But far from killing the theory, cosmologists say, the observations make
it more necessary than ever—albeit in a new form. No other theory answers
a nagging question in big bang cosmology: Why is the universe even vaguely
flat? Over time, the cosmos should seem ever more curved as more of it
comes into view and its overall shape becomes more apparent. By now, billions
of years after the big bang, the universe should be highly curved, which
would make it either depressingly desolate or impenetrably dense.
Guth, now at Stanford University—solved the problem by postulating
that the universe went through a period of accelerating expansion. Once-adjacent
regions separated faster than light (which space
can do—Einstein's special theory of relativity applies to speeds within
space). As a result, we now see only a fragment of the cosmos. Its overall
shape is not visible yet; each fragment looks flat. Inflation also explains
the near uniformity of the universe: any lumpiness is too large scale for
us to perceive.
But if observers can't find enough matter to flatten space, theorists must
draw one of two awkward conclusions. The first is that some new kind of
dark matter makes up the difference. The inferred matter goes by the name
of "quintessence," first used in this general context by Lawrence M. Krauss
of Case Western Reserve University. The usage alludes to Aristotelian ether;
besides, anything that accounts for two thirds of physical reality is surely
Quintessence joins the two previously postulated kinds of dark matter:
dim but otherwise ordinary matter (possibly rogue brown dwarfs) and inherently
invisible elementary particles (possibly neutrinos, if these ghostly particles
have a slight mass). Both reveal themselves only by tugging at visible
stars and galaxies. Our fate hinges on what makes up quintessence.
The simplest possibility, Einstein's
cosmological constant, inexorably gains in relative strength as cosmic
expansion dilutes matter. But other forms of quintessence, such as featherweight
particles or space-time kinks, might eventually fade away. In May, Christopher
T. Hill of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory speculated that the quintessence
mystery is related to another: the neutrino mass. So far the only
proof for quintessence is circumstantial. The latest supernova observations
suggest that cosmic expansion is accelerating, and recent cosmic microwave
background measurements show that triangles may indeed subtend 180 degrees,
as they should in flat space.
Two-round inflationary theory was developed in 1995 by two teams: Martin
Bucher of Princeton University, Neil G. Turok, now at the University of
Cambridge, and Alfred S. Goldhaber of the State University of New York
at Stony Brook; and Kazuhiro Yamamoto of Kyoto University and Misao Sasaki
and Takahiro Tanaka of Osaka University. In this theory, the first round
creates a uniform mega-universe. Within it, bubbles—self-contained universes—spontaneously
form. Each undergoes a second round of inflation that ends prematurely,
leaving it curved. The amount of curvature varies from bubble to
The second idea, announced in February by Turok and Stephen W. Hawking
of Cambridge, is that the smooth universe gurgled not out of a soda universe
but out of utter nothingness. Updating Hawking's decade-old work on creation
ex nihilo, they devised an "instanton"—loosely speaking, a mathematical
formula for the difference between existence and nonexistence—that implied
we should indeed be living in a slightly curved universe. Finally,
maybe the universe has an unusual topology, so that different parts of
the cosmos interconnect like pretzel strands. Then the universe merely
gives the illusion of immensity, and the multiple pathways allow matter
to mix together and become smooth. Such speculation dates to the 1920s
but was dusted off two years ago by Neil J. Cornish of Cambridge, David
N. Spergel of Princeton and Glenn D. Starkman of Case Western Reserve.
Like all good cosmological theories, these ideas lead to some wacky conclusions.
The bubble and ex nihilo universes are infinite, which quantum laws forbid.
The solution: let the universe be both infinite and finite. From the outside
it is finite, keeping the quantum cops happy; inside, "space" takes
on the infinite properties of time. In the pretzel universe, light from
a given object has several different ways to reach us, so we should see
several copies of it. In principle, we could look out into the heavens
and see the earth.
More worrisome is that these models abandon a basic goal of inflationary
theory: explaining the universe as the generic outcome of a simple process
independent of hard-to-fathom initial conditions. The trade-off is that
cosmologists can now subject metaphysical speculation—including interpretations
of quantum mechanics and guesses about the "before"—to observational
Out of all this brainstorming may emerge an even deeper theory than standard
inflation; by throwing a wrench into the works, observers may have fixed
them. Upcoming high-resolution observations of the microwave background
and galaxy clustering should be decisive. But if not, cosmologists may
begin to question the underpinnings of modern physics. "If the experimental
data is inconsistent with literally everything, this may be a signal for
us to change gravity theory—Einstein theory," Linde says. (George Musser).
As king of the gods, Zeus also represents a fundamental universal principle.
Just as Zeus is the offspring of Cronos and Rhea, so energy is the product
of frequency (rhythm) and duration. Einstein expressed relativity
through his famous equation, E = MC2.
What is the most fundamental component of existence? An examination
of the physical nature of Zeus reveals the metaphysics of existence.
The theory of general relativity asserts that geometry is produced by matter
or matter by geometry. One never appears without the other in isolation.
Ian Barbour describes the dependency of matter upon duration. He
says that "time is constitutive of the being of atoms as vibratory
patterns; a wave or musical note requires time in order to exist--a note
is nothing at an instant." Another physicist, Werner Heisenburg describes
matter as energy and vice versa. He claims, "Energy is in fact the
substance from which all elementary particles, all atoms and therefore
all things are made, and energy is that which moves."
If Zeus is perceived as energy, he is this essence of manifest reality.
Energy transmutes into matter when it takes on the form of an elementary
particle. It manifests itself in a form. Matter and energy
are actually a paradoxical unity. In relativity theory, matter-energy
is viewed as a distortion in the structure of space. At this juncture,
it is perhaps wise to reflect upon the discipline of science itself as
a search for patterns and intelligibility. This is precisely the
arena of philosophy and metaphysics.
The ultimate metaphysical task is to synthesize all facets of human knowledge
into one grand unified field theory of existence (a mathematical overview).
The trend now appears in the scientific community as a fascination with
the psycho-physical aspects of energy.
Reality is a holistic gestalt which appears alternatively as space, time,
energy, matter, and causation. Most evidence indicates it is a biolographic
projection of mind. These abstractions of human categorizing are
not absolute qualities or entities of reality itself. But the basic
nature of material existence certainly influences biological systems.
Organic growth is a function of geometry and includes spatial relationships
and ratios. Living systems create order from disorder, but must always
battle against disruption, entropy, or chaos. No system is self-sufficient.
Therefore, order is maintained by bringing in energy (i.e. food, air, water)
from outside. The biochemical system has to exchange matter with
its environment all the time.
Lyall Watson describes how a complex entity also begins to exchange information
with the environment in addition to energy. This essential survival
information "arrives in three forms--electromagnetic waves, such as light;
mechanical pressures, such as sound; and chemical stimuli, such as those
giving rise to taste and smell." In animals and humans, these three
types of signals are all converted by sense receptors which are in direct
contact with the environment. When the stimuli contacts the receptor,
an electrical impulse (electrical energy) carries the message into the
central nervous system. Hermes, electrical message, is a son of Zeus,
archetypal process of "lighting up."
Occupations associated with Zeus include the following:
captain of industry
It is no semantic accident that the term 'inflation' is also applied in
human psychology as a term for grandiosity. 'Omnipotent' power motivations
of all kinds are symptomatic of inflation. Edinger (1972) gives "spells
of anger" as examples of arrogant inflated states -- a misapplied attempt
to coerce the environment. He cites the dictionary definition as
"Blown up, distended with air, unrealistically large and unrealistically
important, beyond the limits of one's proper size; hence, to be vain, pompous,
proud, presumptuous." He describes the term as the identification
of the ego with the divine properties of the Self, "a state in which something
small (the ego) has arrogated to itself the qualities of something larger
(the Self) and hence is blown up beyond the limits of its proper size."
We are all born into inflation due to our original unconscious fusion when
the unformed ego is all Self. In this identification, the ego imagines
itself virtually as a deity. This state of wholeness or perfection
is relfected in the basically round figures found universally in the art
of young children. Variation yields circles with crosses or eight
divisions, sometimes swirling like swastikas -- all ancient symbols of
the thundergods, including Zeus. Thus, the original condition is
depicted as mandala-like roundness, as reported of primeval man by Plato
in the Symposium. Such mandala symbols are also considered
therapeutic or healing.
Nostalgia for this experience of oneself as the center of the universe
can lead to subsequent problems and alienation. Reality-checks help
the ego grow and distinguish itself from unconscious identity with the
Self, yet ephiphanies or reunions of the two foster integrity. In
psychosis, this is the root of heroic-inflation -- conviction that one
is God, Jesus, Napoleon, Joan of Arc, Messiah-complex, etc. by attaching
private significance to outer events which are independent of one's convictions.
In negative inflation, one identifies with the divine victim; too much
humility is also arrogance. The psychic dangers of inflation and
alienation have been always been recognized in folk wisdom and spiritual
Both very high and very low self-esteem rest on defense mechanisms.
The narcissistic viewpoint rarely leaves psychophysical Zone 1 of "I, me,
mine." A grandiose self craves narcissistic gratification and attention.
The antidotes to this narcissistic inflation (unmistakable and often unpleasant
increase in self-confidence and conceit) are empathy, humour, wisdom, selfless
service, and transpersonal commitment. Kohut's theory of narcissism
considers creativeness to result from a successful transformation of this
This creativeness arises from within and does not include dabbling in this
and that as a dilettante. It means being truly multi-faceted, expressing
activity of the soul that deserves to be called truly creative and productive
(Jacoby, 1991). It is a mirroring of the cosmic creative process,
an expressed creative potential. Through rapport and empathy we detect
complex psychic configurations. Empathy, rather than projection,
is how we can best relate to others. 'Narcissistic hunger' reverses
this and constantly demands our empathic response. When rapport and
empathy break down we fail to meet the reality of the other.
Depression or despondency is the result of lack of self-value, and has
been identified by Berne and Perls as a psychological "racket," designed
to garner negative attention. Other symptoms are exagerrated modesty,
wearing a striken and misunderstood look. These attacks from within
are feared and compensated by attempts at manipulation of others, better
met through positive validation or unsolicited stroking, and a harmonization
of competing forces seeking a centering of the whole personality.
In order to be effective and expressive, we need some measure of psychic
maturity. Empathy, for example, requires a stable, yet flexible ego.
Humour, the ability to honestly laugh at oneself as one is, genuine tolerance
of our imperfection, is the antidote to 'narcissistic vulnerability.'
Witticisms and sarcasm are not equivalent, but merely defensive.
Humour presupposes some awareness of and tolerance of our weak points.
The self as God-image plays a central role in the religious dimension.
Humor and wisdom together can be profound teachers.
Mentoring and the projections of the 'wise old man' or 'wise old woman'
(ego ideals) can help or hinder us finding our own style of wisdom.
Projections must be re-owned, and one's own connection to Source nurtured.
A false pose of unflinching serenity sacrifices wholeness and psychic equilibrium.
Wisdom requires courage -- the ability to continuously and critically question
our perceptions of self, others, and world. Wisdom means we perceive
the relativity and acknowledge the limitations of all our concerns and
endeavors without illusions. Nevertheless, self-doubts and painful
fluctuations of psychic balance are intrinsic to even a mature soul's experience
of life's flow.
Creativeness depends on an ego that is open and receptive to creative unconscious
impulses. Genuine creative expression helps us share our perceptions
and point of view with others in a positive way. However, like empathy,
it is no guarantee of being correctly understood. It is our means
of transforming nature and our nature into culture, by making, constructing,
combining. Its purpose is to facilitate the task of human consciousness
to carry on actively and autonomously the creative process that lies at
our own origin. Creativity helps us process or transform ourselves
in times of crisis. Emotionally charged psychic contents are expressed,
made to 'matter,' literally.
A creative lifestyle is motivated by the true self and considered rewarding,
meaningful -- a connection to psychic liveliness, fluidity, growth and
spontaneity. But the creative lifestyle must be balanced with responsibility
and duty, not realized by recklessly imposing destructiveness on
others. The opposite lifestyle is arid, meaningless 'compliance,'
through the false self. Aestheic criteria or virtuosity do not apply;
the test is whether the product comes from a deep unconscious layer or
not, unexpected manifestations which provoke astonishment, strong affect,
even defences. They are also not magical messages from above to which
we must irresponsibly submit. Symbols of the unknown don't represent
one specific course of action. A creative lifestyle helps us confront
our problems from the depth of our souls, find creative solutions, build
self-reliance and courage, and increase healthy self-esteem.
On the level of human emotional response, Zeus also can be known through
the father-complex. Depending on the emotional set and setting of
childhood, we may have a positive or negative father image. It is
composed of all those things we feel a father should be, and what our personal
role models portrayed. The purpose of the father image is to challenge
us into further exploration and growth, and he provides the support that
helps us meet the challenges of becoming an individual in our own right.
A father encourages us to find our place in the world and develop social
consciousness. He counsels us to choose a career where we may be
effective, and successful.
The positive father complex expresses in an attitude of extroverted enthusiasm
for life. With a positive father-complex, we are eager to learn,
comprehend, and experience many facets of life. The positive father
counsels one to maintain an objective, long-range viewpoint which is based
on wisdom and consideration for others. The negative father-complex
may appear when the father is absent, or a poor example of the higher qualities
of Zeus. This type may be tenacious, and greedy, or grasping.
Nothing is ever enough to make up for the loss of spiritual fathering.
He is a counterdependent personality, who needs to remain "top dog" at
least in his own mind. He would like to control and own everything,
and everyone. He is so arrogant he thinks he must take charge of
managing everyone around himself. He is continually motivated, like
the positive type, but never seems satisfied with the fruits of his efforts.
Zeus is the paradigm of the "self-made man" who might become workaholic
and neglect his family-life. This is ironic since these men frequently
see themselves as working so diligently in the service of their families.
Today the role of father is no longer confined to being a breadwinner who
stays at work for most hours of the day. Males have become more aware
of their nurturing capacities. There are implications in the changing
role of the father. Now men are encouraged to take nurturing roles,
even with their pre-school children.
Even in post-divorce parenting, both father and mothers are staying actively
involved in the live of their children. This cultural change is evident
in the men's networks which are emerging, and such phenomena as support
groups and "paternity leave" for new fathers. Zeus has a love of
freedom and independence, but he has a strong sense of commitment to engendering
this quality in his offspring.
Keywords associated with Zeus include the following:
AHA!, ambitious, arrogance, alert, achievement, benevolence, comprehension,
compensation, conceit, decisive, dynamic, dynamo, eagle, energetic, enthusiasm,
enjoyable, egotistical, extravert, expansion, equitable, extraordinary,
experienced, fortunate, father complex, glutton, grand gesture, inflation,
increase, independent, leadership, lucky, majestic, magnificent, mercy,
nobility, optimism, opportunity, overview, paternal, paternity suit, patronize,
powerful, power trip, patrician, prosperity, patriarch, perceptive, philosophical,
respected, reason, restless, self-assurance, strong will, success, systematic,
shrewd, tryst, wisdom, wholeness
Nay, the same Solomon the king, although he excelled in the glory of
treasure and magnificent building, of shipping and navigation, of service
and attendance, of fame and renown, and the like, yet he maketh no claim
to any of those glories, but only to the glory of inquisition of truth;
for so he saith expressly, "The glory of God is to conceal a thing, but
the glory of the king is to find it out"; as if, according to the innocent
play of children, the Divine Majesty took delight to hide his works, to
the end to have them found out; and as if kings could not obtain a greater
honor than to be God's play-fellows in that game.
Frances Bacon, THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING (1605)
Solomon, known for his wisdom and philosophic attitude, embodied the Zeus-type
of personality. Solomon sought an ever-expanding knowledge of God
and the universe. He wrote the Song of Songs in his youth, Proverbs
in mid-life, and Ecclesiastes in old age. However, none of these
sums up the entire philosophical spectrum of his worldview. That
summation is the entire effect of the life of this great philosopher on
Intellectually, the Zeus personality may be considered a philosopher, first
and foremost. A philosopher delves into the theory or logical analysis
of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature
of the universe. Philosophy is linked intimately to morals and character,
and produces a calmness or composure even in the face of difficulties.
Philosophers are "lovers of wisdom" who may be compared to devotees or
children of Zeus. Philosophy starts with the a priori assumption
that it is superior to all other sciences. A philosophic viewpoint
takes a cosmic perspective and uses the imagery of penetrating vision.
This lucid understanding is said to confer mastery over daily living and
the rest of the phenomenal world. Philosophy works toward unification
of perspectives, trying to develop a solid worldview which has an all-embracing
coherence. Philosophy has a spectrum ranging from mathematics to
Philosophy seeks the razor's edge or balance point between opposites.
In their personalities philosophers have an occupational hazard in spiritual
pride and sometimes are too pompous in their judgements. Then their
pronouncements sound like a clap of thunder and lightning to those whose
perspective is a little earthier, (i.e. grounded). Those not gifted
(or cursed) with a philosophic bent find the pontifications of philosophers
too abstract to be personally meaningful to themselves. But these
people are still faced with the fundamental philosophical questions, such
as Who am I?, Where do I come from?, Where am I going?. Is there a god?,
Does man have an immortal soul, or free will?
Aristotle's METAPHYSICS opens with the statement that all men desire
by nature to know. But this is by no means a universal truth concerning
the intellectual pursuit of philosophy. To be philosophically inclined
is not a universal, but an archetypal truth. It is the archetypal
perspective of Zeus. Psychologically speaking, Zeus equates with
the Self, referred to as the Higher Self in the occult tradition.
Those not so philosophically inclined might understand, but not revere,
such abstractions of human thought as principle, law, and axiom.
To them the varieties of religious experience and philosophical viewpoints
may seem as numerous and promiscuous as the liaisons of Zeus.
It is the philosophic imperative of Zeus to fertilize and make fecund so
many areas of existence. The offspring of Zeus are all around us,
influencing our belief systems, styles of being, and mundane pursuits.
We now live in a philosophic as well as cultural melting pot, where integration,
synergy, and synthesis describe the ideal. On the personal level
this is a balanced, robust personality. On the group level, it marks
a healthy community or society.
We can tap into Zeus' wisdom for personal guidance in our daily life.
Zeus was not only considered an abstract Olympian god, but also a daimon
(or mediator) on a personal level. In other words, he (the Self)
functions as an inner guide for the mortals who call on him. His
realm involves the entire cycle of human fate; he is the determiner of
destiny, delivering what we have earned through our actions. As dispenser
of human fate, Zeus reigns like an almighty god.
We contact Zeus when we can "see through" the events of our daily lives
to a more fundamental level. On the psychological level, Zeus appears
as the "meaning" which lights up the happenings in our lives. For
great events, there is a correspondingly profound insight. Sudden
insight may be compared to a quantum leap in consciousness.
For example, an insight concerning the nature of Self might be to "see
through" to the paradox that the self, which represents wholeness, is not
necessarily only good or noble. Since it is all things, from highest
to lowest, it also embodies that quality known as pure self-centered selfishness.
As a king, Zeus is wholly concerned with actualizing his own will, and
from this comes the ability to be beneficent and compassionate, to give
of himself. He must, however, enjoy his freedom, untrammeled by societal
conventions, or he ceases to be Zeus!
The paradox of Zeus is that he has developed a serene, philosophical attitude,
while indulging in his most capricious whims, all the while being a hen-pecked
husband! This is a very difficult situation for Westerners to comprehend.
But the Zeus-energy is limited and held in check by the other gods.
When Zeus becomes too impressed with his own abilities to mediate the opposites,
his wisdom can turn to folly and an excessive conceit.
Philosophy can be the basis of a personal and social worldview. Philosophy
is not just intellectual curiosity, but functions as a meta-culture.
A listing of the chief types of factors which influence the cultural behavior
of man reads like a keyword correspondence for Zeus and his concerns.
These include: hunger, sex, self-defense, power, possession, fear, unseen
powers, law, custom, hope, self-respect, position, achievement, need for
fun, companionship, concern for other, need for children, exercise of skills,
appropriate degree of social, political, and individual freedom, appropriate
degree of tradition, knowing where one stands with respect to each of the
above, role and goal of man. John Oulton Wisdom (1975) classifies
these as follows: "environmental, bodily needs, political, religious, legal,
social, human relations, gambling, ideals, identity, knowing the system."
Different philosophies have different goals since they are based on specific
value systems. But most philosophies, from the early days of Greek
thought have had to contend with the problem of universals, essences, and
categories. This problem boils down to the question: "Is a universal
a word, or a conception in the mind, or an essence in a natural object?"
No problems are articulated without the existence of a human being.
Philosophy is concerned with the dynamics of comprehension and comprehensibility.
Zeus represents our primordial awareness and alertness from which philosophy
begins. The area where physical and non-physical (or psychic) merge
is the human mind.
Just what is the mind, and what gives it the ability to think a thought?
We needn't even resort to philosophy for an answer. Modern neurology
posits the seat of the mind deep in the brain stem. This higher portion
of the stem constitutes approximately 1% of the total brain and is known
as the Reticular Activating System, or RAS, for short. The RAS is
fundamental to the support of life. It is even more critical than
the cerebral cortex, whose removal is compatible with survival under the
proper circumstances. The main function of the RAS is the regulation
of arousal. It controls all sleeping and waking cycles, and also
the "emotional brain" or limbic system.
The RAS also coordinates incoming and outgoing signals regulating the physical
functions of the spinal cord and autonomic nervous system. Even though
more recent evolutionary developments, such as the cortex, seem to be the
'seat of consciousness," the 'mind' originates in this ancient formation.
The RAS is critical in the production of motivational and emotional feelings.
Appetites, emotional effects, and feelings of interest all spring from
this mechanism of arousal. The brain contains many separate mechanisms,
each of which is activated through electrical currents passing along its
circuitry of insulated nerve fibers. Thus many separate functions
are simultaneously coordinated through the RAS.
Passage through the higher brain stem (diencephalon) may change the quality
or intensity of an incoming signal. The RAS may inhibit or reinforce
sensory messages changing the reception of the signal or message in the
thalamus and cortex. This purpose of the RAS is functional integration.
Man is an instinctual robot without the RAS, capable of no decisions, will,
memory, or humor. It is still a mystery where the mind (RAS) gets
its energy since nerve cells are either activated or paralyzed. Some
neurologists do not believe that the arousal comes strictly from neuronal
activity in the brain.
It is easy to deduce, however, that the mind focuses attention, is aware,
reasons, and decides with understanding. No analogous point has been
found in the cerebral cortex which can be stimulated to function with electrodes.
There can be no artificial stimulation of belief or decision with an electrical
charge. The RAS "lights up" the brain with mind. Consciousness
(mind) is an integrative function roughly equivalent to "coherence" in
light (i.e. laser).
Philosopher, Bertrand Russell expressed an interesting philosophical viewpoint
on 'thought' in his PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION:
Men fear thought as they fear nothing else on earth--more than ruin,
more even than death. Thought is subversive and revolutionary, destructive
and terrible; thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions
and comfortable habits; thought is anarchic and lawless, indifferent to
authority, careless of the well-tried wisdom of the ages. It sees
man, a feeble speck, surrounded by unfathomable depths of silence; yet
it bears itself proudly, as unmoved as if it were lord of the universe.
Thought is great and swift and free, the light of the world, and the chief
glory of man.
This seems most true when that thought originates in the higher aspect
of our being--the Self, rather than from our wounded personality complexes.
Jung noted the paradoxical nature of the Self as the center and circumference
of the psyche--its center and symbol of wholeness--the integrative function.
The ego originates in the Self and is fulfilled through relating to it
as a source of nurture.
The self brings structure and archetypal order to the inherent chaos of
the psyche--it organizes and directs the psychic process, much like a musical
conductor. The Self strives to realize itself, with or without conscious
awareness on the part of the personality. It has its own agenda,
and can appear like an alien being, thing, or consciousness when we project
its power outside ourselves.
The self is the author of our sense of fate or destiny. If our ego
identifies with it too much, we go on an ego trip, claiming transpersonal
powers for our puny self. Jung defined the Self as the archetype
of the God-image in the psyche, noting that is all we can ever directly
apprehend of God, in any event. Only after direct experience of the
image do our minds create interpretation, speculation, dogma, or denial
of the numinous experience.
Jung alleged that God can be known directly through the symbols of the
Self, listening to the voices of the soul. God is immanent in the
depths of the psyche, the transpersonal realm. God is everywhere
as Self in universe, nature, and man in this animistic perspective.
The Jungian process of individuation helps to raise the God-images into
conscious awareness, stimulating an I-Thou dialogue between ego and the
The Self also has a shadow-side--the dark side of God--because it is a
paradoxical unity. Zeus exemplified this shadow side, acting out
his Will no matter what. This shadow of archetypal good, which is
archetypal evil creates a challenge for the individuating ego. This
is an inherent part of the heroic quest, and leads to humility. The
Self appears when we need transpersonal guidance to balance the ego and
unconscious perspectives, restoring psychic health.
Further reading on Zeus and related topics may be found in the following:
ZEUS AND HERA; ARCHETYPAL IMAGE OF FATHER, HUSBAND, AND WIFE, C. Kerenyi,
Princeton University Press, 1975.
CELTIC QUEST, John Layard, Spring Pub., Dallas, 197 .
THE WOUNDED WOMAN, Linda Leonard
PHILOSOPHY: ITS PLACE IN OUR CULTURE, J.O. Wisdom
PHILOSOPHICAL THEORIES, M.L. Ambrose
THE GAMESMEN: THE NEW CORPORATE LEADERS, Michael Maccoby
EARTH FATHER/SKY FATHER, Arthur and Libby Coleman, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981.
FATHER, CHILD, & SEX ROLE, Henry Biller, Lexington, Mass., Heath Lexington
FATHER FEELINGS, Eliot Daley, New York, William Morrow & Co., 1978.
A MAN'S PLACE: MASCULINITY IN TRANSITION, Joe Dubbert, Prentice-Hall, 1979.
A BOOK OF MEN, VISIONS OF THE MALE EXPERIENCE, Ross Firestone (Ed.), Stonehill
Publishing Co. New York, 1978.
FIRE IN THE BELLY, Sam Keen
IRON JOHN, Robert Bly
THE FATHER BOOK, PREGNANCY AND BEYOND, Rae Frad, et al, Acropolis Book,
Washington D.C., 1981.
THE ROLE OF THE FATHER IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Michael Lamb, John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 1981.
FATHERS, Ross Parke, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1981.
MEN AND MASCULINITY, J. Pleck and J. Sawyer (Eds.), Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 1974.
THE MYTH OF MASCULINITY, Joseph Pleck, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981.
FATHERS, MOTHER AND SOCIETY, R. Rapaport, et al. Basic Books, Inc., New
FATHER JOURNAL, David Steinberg, Time Change Press, Albion, Ca., 1977.
THE FATHER'S ALMANAC, S. Sullivan, Doubleday & Co., New York, 1980.
John Gribbin, Companion to the Cosmos, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London,
True to the spirit of Zeus, this reading list is excessive compared with
the others, and contains some interesting archetypal correspondences.
For example PHILOSOPHY; ITS PLACE IN OUR CULTURE, links Zeus and
Athena (Culture) and is written by Wisdom. THE FATHER BOOK
is published by Acropolis Books; there's Athena again. Books about
men by women show that Zeus is within us all.
This life of yours which you are living is not merely a piece of this
entire existence, but is in a certain sense the "whole;" only this whole
is not so constituted that it can be surveyed in one single glance.
This, as we know, is what the Brahmins express in that sacred, mystical
formula which is yet really so simple and so clear: TAT TVAM ASI, this
is you. Or, again, in such words as "I am in the east and in the
west. I am below and above, I AM THIS WHOLE WORLD.
Ervin Schoedinger, "My View of the World"
Zeus has a metaphysical nature since he represents the wholeness described
through the personalities of the other gods of the pantheon. He is
the center of the pantheon and, therefore, represents the whole universe
of manifest phenomena. He is the father of Athena, Artemis, Apollo,
Hebe, Ares, Persephone, Hermes, Dionysus, The Muses, Herakles, the Graces,
the Fates, and the Hours, etc.
Zeus is the metaphysical nature of the universe. Just what is metaphysics?
It is a branch of philosophy which studies that which is beyond physics.
It deals with first principles, seeking to explain the nature of being
and the origin and structure of the world. Logic studies the elements
and functions of intelligence, but metaphysics studies being and its essential
properties. When we have absorbed the knowledge available through
studying physics, the next logical step to examine is metaphysics.
Thus, we formulate our worldview through knowledge and belief.
Metaphysical thinking is not vague and speculative, but precise and straightforward.
It describes the foundations of our belief systems, disclosing our a priori
assumptions, or assumed truths. We all base our worldviews on "assumed
truths," therefore each of us embraces a metaphysical viewpoint which has
a paramount influence on our lives. Metaphysics has been criticized
as nonsensical or occult by scientists, and heretical by the religious
establishment. In reality, it is neither, seeking merely to disclose
the presuppositions of our belief systems, from its unique relative perspective.
It describes the most general features of our existence and seeks to unify
the various domains of value and fact.
Myth is a metaphysical system. Our beliefs about the nature of existence
are conditioned by the mythic level of psyche. Myth can be viewed
as a preliterate form of science, through which culture was transmitted.
Mythic cosmologies, including the latest scientific theories, deal with
the descent and ascent of man, echoing the deeper truths of existence.
Myths embody a universal meaning with multiple levels of interpretation.
Myths describe cosmological truths because they are in rapport with the
fundamental workings of the cosmos. Cosmologies describe the descent
into matter of primal universal entities. They use symbols since
there is no other language for describing the ultimate nature of things,
and symbols are the descriptors spontaneously produced by the human psyche
in archetypes, myths, and dreams.
Physicists substitute mathematical formulae, but this is another type of
symbol which stands in the place of reality. Numbers, and mathematics,
are an artifact of human culture, a human translation of the archetype
of cosmic ordering processes. They may give scientists an occasional
flash of genius, which is like a stroke of lightning, but it only illuminates
a small portion of the path. Physics is actually a school of philosophy--natural
philosophy. We may look at physics' view of "reality" as a modern
myth. An examination of the creation myth, as described by physics
yields interesting perspectives when compared with the Greek cosmogony.
The overthrow of Uranus, the Sky God, by Cronos and Gaea through his castration
fulfills the basic postulate of perpetual transformation. Cronus
is the principle of determinism whose function is to regulate not only
his father, but his children. Zeus escapes the regulation of Cronos
and escapes determinism through his progeny. He uses strategy to
escape the laws of Cronos (space-time). In the world of light there
is no time, space, or mass. Photons have complete freedom.
The Uranus-Cronos-Zeus cycle describes the generation of the universe.
First there is Mater, matter or substance or mass, known as Gaea.
She is impregnated by Uranus, the original evolutionary impulse, who is
characterized as the Starry Heavens. Cronos castrates Uranus, delimiting
him. Cronos (spacetime) thus represents the law of limitation, and
embodies duration, chronicity, and chronological order. This implies
death, for all forms which come into being, must cease or dissolve at some
Zeus escapes being eaten by "Time" through the strategy of producing numerous
offspring, of great diversity. Zeus is the expanding universe, whose
nature is observable through Doppler shift. The evidence for an expanding
universe comes from observation of receding galaxies. Galaxies twice
as far away are receding twice as fast, etc., as if all had started from
a common point with different velocities about 14 x 10, to 9th power years
But the Greek creation myth did not begin with Zeus. It begins with
Chaos--Void Space--which can be viewed as a vacuum with random fluctuation
(the random element). From this egg of the universe was born the
cosmogonic Eros, the God of Love, or primal attraction. This Eros
may also be described as the dominating force in the large-scale dynamics
of the universe--Gravitation, the force of attraction which is the curvature
of the structure of spacetime. Even though Zeus represents the unity
of the superior progenitor, he is limited by the other gods, as myth shows.
Our modern myths of existence may be "seen through" from the archetypal
perspectives of many gods.
An imaginal description of archetypal reality discloses Zeus as ENERGY,
which can manifest as LIGHT. As radial energy, Zeus is expansive.
E = hf means that energy (E) equals the frequency of the light emitted
(f) times Planck's constant (h). This formula gave birth to the quantum
age. When an atom is split mass is converted into energy. Zeus
is a "quantum god." Recall the lament of Einstein that "God doesn't
play dice with the universe." On the other hand, Zeus is inexorably
linked with gambling, risk, play and the uncertainty principle. Zeus
is a restless force. The speed of light is constant and it has no
rest mass, because it never rests. The velocity of light is therefore
a universal constant--the same everywhere all the time.
The unstable vacuum, known as Chaos, is not simply the absence of matter,
but a complex system, within which matter can arise through random fluctuation.
This is probably conditioned by deterministic chaos operating in quantum
fluctuation, translating the virtual energy of scalar fields into observable
energy events. Once matter (substance, the velocity-independent factor
in momentum) arises, the dynamics of the vacuum lead to our present expanding
universe. It grows slowly till it reaches the critical mass for expansion.
Once expansion begins from any point, more matter is automatically created,
which induces more expansion, etc.
Zeus is thus the "Big Bang", or the entire inflationary scenario of expansion
and evolution (Universal Mind). E=mc2 means that as a particle's
energy increases so does its mass. More simply, it is speculated
that light twists on itself to create matter. We come from light
and return to light. An electron is a photon, or a quantum of action
frozen into mass. Light is an enigma since it has no rest mass or
charge. Light never rests; it is restless. It is pure action.
Light appears in whole units of action which lose no energy. Light
accounts for all energy exchange at atomic and molecular levels.
Both action (light) and matter come in whole units, which are indivisible.
Unimpaired, light follows the principle of least action, along geodesic
world lines. Since light is quantized in photons, light is pure action,
and action comes in wholes. Wholeness is inherent in the nature of
action, the nature of Zeus, and the nature of Self, and God. The
Creator is not separate from the Creation in natural philosophy.
Quantum physics, like religion, reveals first causes. Arthur Young
(1976) asserts that Light = quanta of action = wholes = first cause.
Photons have total freedom since they are independent of spacetime, and
are at the top of the causal chain.
We can trace the Big Bang backwards through physics. As we go backward
through time, the temperature gets hotter and hotter. As matter (atoms)
get superheated, it becomes a plasma because the heat makes violent collisions
between atoms. They can't hold together. So matter consists
of nuclei and loose, unbounded electrons. Before the plasma stage,
even nuclei couldn't hold together, so matter exited only as energetic
particles. Even earlier in creation the particles couldn't hold together,
and matter could only exist as quarks. Prior to that, conditions
are so intense that of the four basic forces (gravity; electromagnetism;
strong force which bonds nuclei; and weak force such as radioactive decay)
the electromagnetic and weak forces merge, leaving three forces.
Still earlier, the even greater temperature melded the strong and electromagetic-weak
interactions, leaving only two forces of gravity and the fused strong-weak-electromagnetic
force. We are approaching the limits of physics which postulates
at Planck Time (10-43 second) all forces unify. To describe this
unified condition, physics needs to develop a theory which marries quantum
mechanics to the laws of general relativity which describe gravitation.
This theory of quantum gravity would be a grand unified theory of the creation.
The Greeks defined relationships among archetypal principles through a
pantheistic viewpoint. Thus we might contemplate other physical archetypes
and their relationship to Zeus as energy and light. For example,
grandmother Rhea might be rhythm, harmony, resonance, or the phenomena
of beats. Themis embodies physical laws, conservation, and action/reaction.
Hera symbolizes (molecular) bonding. Thanatos is the principle of
entropy. Entropy is ever-present, just as death in the soul is concurrent
with daily life. Hades can influence us through radioactive decay
which can be an invisible destroyer, mutating our genes. Poseidon
is characterized as a sea-god. He could correspond with wave fronts
(amplitude). He is described as a wave function, wave packet, or
tidal field, or the ocean of dark matter and energy. Hestia's fire
is described by the laws of thermodynamics. Electromagnetism is a hermaphroditic
entity. Electricity = Hermes; magnetism = Aphrodite. Hermes
also governs synchronicity which is the meaningful congruence of mind and
matter. Flow is the confluence of mind and matter.
Apollo is thermonuclear fission by which our sun creates light. Artemis
is resonance, which manifests on the human level as empathy. Artemis/Apollo
as twins symbolize polarity, + or - charge. Mars = force, which is
mass accelerating. It is tangential energy or vector quantity.
Kinetic energy is momentum which is equivalent to mass x velocity.
On the human level it is exertion or aggression. There are other
correspondences for natural philosophy. To understand is to transcend.
On Thundergods and Thunderbolts. The universe is governed at a fundamental
level by electromagnetic forces. Virtually every culture has preserved
memory of a "thundergod," a towering and tumultuous figure whose modus
operandi is the generation of lightning and the hurling of death-dealing
thunderbolts from the sky. A prominent character in ancient pantheons,
shaman rites, and religious iconography, the thundergod often doubles as
a god of war. The Inca god Illapa is a case in point: "Lightning
in Inca religion was the major theophany of the weather god, known
as Ilyap'a, now usually hispanicized to Illapa…Illapa was also the god
of war, of trade, and god of death. It was represented as a constellation
outlining a man wielding a club in his left hand and a sling in his right."
One of the most popular gods in North America is the so-called Thunderbird,
described as a towering bird spanning heaven. Numerous tribes preserve
traditions of the bird that hurls lightning from heaven, bringing destruction
and fire: "The well-nigh universal American conception of the thunder is
that it is caused by a bird or brood of birds—the Thunderbirds. "The
concept of the thunderbird exists in Gran Chaco, in Ecuador, and among
the Caribbeans on the northern coast of the continent.
The Egyptian Min offers an early example of the thundergod, his defining
symbol appearing already on predynastic pottery and rock art tracing to
the fourth millennium BCE. In addition to serving as a god of storm
and war, Min also featured prominently as an agent of fertility.
The ancient Semitic thundergod Hadad/Adad, whose name is thought to be
cognate with Arabic haddat, "thunder," was likewise represented as a warrior.
Illustrations of the long-haired and bearded god holding an axe and/or
lightning are common throughout ancient Mesopotamia. Early epithets
of the god, including Bir-qu, Lugal-ri-ha-mun, and Mer-ta-i-mu, identify
him as the lightning, King of the Hurricane, and thunderer respectively.
Adad is elsewhere represented as a promoter of fertility, a pattern we
will discover in other thundergods around the world. Thus, an Assyrian
prayer invokes Adad as follows: "thunderer, splendid, mighty god, terror,
doughty warrior, who wields lightning, master of the deluge…you make
The most familiar example of the thundergod is the Greek Zeus, whose resemblance
to Hadad was commonly acknowledged by the ancients themselves. Although
the cult of Zeus was subject to profound evolution, often to the extent
that his original nature was largely obscured, the portrait of the god
offered by our earliest sources is consistent and it conforms to that of
an agent of thunder, lightning, wind and rain. It would also appear
likely that the archaic Zeus was a god of war. Burkert describes
the Homeric Zeus as follows:
"Zeus, according to his Homeric epithets, is the cloud gatherer, the
dark-clouded, the thunderer on high, and the hurler of thunderbolts; in
colloquial speech one can say 'Zeus is raining' instead of 'it is raining';
in Imperial times children were still singing, 'Rain, rain, O dear Zeus,
on the fields of the Athenians…A direct epiphany of Zeus is lightning;
wherever it strikes, a sanctuary is set up to Zeus Descending, Kataibates.
It was as a thunderbolt that Zeus laid his fatal embrace on Semele.
The thunderbolt…is the weapon of Zeus which he alone commands; it is irresistible,
even gods tremble before it, and enemies of the gods are utterly destroyed
when it strikes; in the face of such a manifestation of divine energy,
man stands powerless, terrified and yet marveling."
In ancient Europe the thundergod occupies a prominent place in early pantheons.
The Norse Thor was both thunderer and warrior. The god's name, cognate
with the OHG Donar and Anglo-Saxon Thunor, derives from proto-Germanic
*Thunaraz and signifies "thunder." Words formed with the god's name signified
the weapons hurled from heaven. In Swedish lore, for example, thunderbolts
were known as thorvigg or thorkil.
The Finnish god Ukko shares numerous features in common with Thor.
He, too, produces the thunder and lightning while controlling the weather.
The word ukko, like its diminutive ukkonen, came to signify "thunder."
It has long been recognized that Thor finds a close parallel in the
Lithuanian Perkunas/Latvian Perkons, the latter god described as riding
across the sky in a fiery chariot. The Slavic Perun offers an obvious cognate
of Perkunas. Of the former god, it is known that his name came to
signify a thunderbolt: "In Slavic, perunu designates both 'thunderbolt'
Russian folklore describes Perun as a great dragon-slayer. Parjanya,
a thundergod of ancient India, offers yet another cognate to the
Baltic Perkunas. The Rig Veda paints a terrifying picture of the
god: "He smites the trees apart, he slays the demons: all life fears him
who wields the mighty weapon." Parjanya is described as wheeling
about in heaven in his chariot, dispensing the fertilizing rains: Parjanya
is elsewhere identified with Indra (8:6:1), the prototypical example of
the Indo-European thundergod. Indeed, the Vedic hymns describing
Indra offer the most comprehensive portrait we have of the archaic thundergod.
It is Indra who is said to have created the lightnings of heaven.
The Divine Warrior's devastating thunderbolt is the subject of countless
hymns in the Rig Veda.
One of the more curious beliefs surrounding the lightning holds that it
emanates from the region of the sun or, more specifically, from a sky-god's
eye. This idea is well attested in ancient Greece, where it was believed
that Zeus could produce lightning from his eye. Aeschylus, for example,
wrote as follows of the Greek thundergod: "The jealous eye of God hurls
the lightning down." The same conception is implicit in Euripedes'
Bacchae: "Unveil the Lightning's eye."
Numerous scholars have observed that the image of Zeus casting lightning
from his eye corresponds to a widespread belief. In Hindu tradition,
for example, Shiva was said to have been capable of throwing lightning
from his third eye, located in the center of his head. Association
of the swastika with the sun-wheel is right on target, Thor's weapon elsewhere
being described as a fiery wheel. The connection between the
(ancient) sun and the swastika is universal in scope. The following
tradition from the Ofo Indians of Florida is a case in point: "The Ofo
called the swastika design ila tata, or 'Sun middle.'
A closely related conception views the lightning as generated from the
"wheel" of the ancient sun-god. The Lithuanian Perkunas, for example,
is said to have obtained his terrible weapon in the following manner: "The
source of the lightning is the sun, the heavenly fire: the Thunder-god
gets fire from the solar wheel by rotating his lightning-club in the nave
of the solar wheel." Thundergods are frequently linked to wheel-like objects
in ancient art and ritual. A krater from Lecce shows Zeus set next
to a wheel. In addition to his thunderbolt, the Latin Jupiter was frequently
depicted together with a wheel in Celtic iconography. The Celtic
Taranis, whose name signifying "thunder" is cognate with that of the Norse
Thor, is likewise pictured together with a wheel, prompting Green to state
with respect to Celtic iconography that "the thunderbolt was a recurrent
associate of the wheel-sign." Also relevant here is a fact noted earlier:
that Thor's thunderbolt was expressly compared to a fiery wheel.
A wheel, especially a flaming one, is the symbol of thunder, of Donar."
The Greek Zeus was likewise intimately associated with the World Pillar.
Cook summarizes the evidence surrounding the Italian cult of Zeus at Tarentum
as follows: "Sacrifices were offered on pillars to the lightning-god Zeus
Kataibates—a practice which, as we saw, had probably been inherited from
'Minoan' times. Apulian and Campanian vases, also, represent Zeus
fulminant on the top of a pillar. Altogether, it looks as though
there were in south Italy an old belief that Zeus with his lightnings dwelt
on high above an obvious tangible pillar, his vehicle and support."
The Greek hero Prometheus, whom Servius described as obtaining his fire
from the sun's wheel, was said by Diodorus to have been the "inventor of
the fire-sticks, from which fire is kindled." Arthur Cook, while
disavowing previous attempts to link the Greek hero's name to the Sanskrit
term pramantha, "fire drill," would nevertheless relate the latter term
to an epithet of Zeus's: "it is highly probable that pramantha the 'fire-drill'
does explain Promantheus, a title under which Zeus was worshipped at Thourioi."
A universal belief finds the thunderbolt (or lightning) regarded as a fertilizing
force. Indeed, the idea is so common in ancient myth and modern folklore
that it is usually taken for granted as if it somehow makes sense in terms
of the customary behavior of lightning. The thunderbolt's striking
the earth, together with the accompanying rain, is thought to "fertilize"
or "inseminate" the earth. The Desana Indians of Colombia, for example,
hold that "lightning…is a fertilizing force that impregnates the earth
with its crystal-semen." More precisely, the lightning is regarded as the
Sun's ejaculation or semen or, with specific reference to the latter's
eye, as a "fertilizing glance."
Nearly every Old World thundergod doubles as an agent of fertility.
Marija Gimbutas described the Lithuanian Perkunas as follows: "The earth
is barren until the Thunder strikes her in the springtime—until in his
epiphany of thunder Perkunas weds the Mother Earth, Zemyna." Such
beliefs, according to Gimbutas, "are universal [among the Balts and Slavs]
and certainly stem from very early times." Ancient conceptions of the thunderbolt
as fecundator or impregater, some of which survived well into modern times.
Thus it is that Thor was frequently invoked at weddings, the god's thunderbolts
forming a prominent feature of many a bridegroom's attire: "In certain
parts of Norway and Sweden, it continued to be the custom for a bridegroom
to bear an axe at the wedding long after Thor was forgotten; the weapon
was said to give him mastery, and also to ensure a fruitful union."
A widespread tradition locates the thundergod at the center or "heart"
of heaven. Thus, the Semitic thunderer Adad was said to roar in "the
heart of heaven," the latter site being that wherein the ancient sun-god
both "rose" and "set." Similar ideas are apparent in the Finnish
cult of Ukko. An interesting epithet of the god's was "navel
of the sky," thought to link the thundergod with the polar region or Pole
star itself. The Navaho thundergod Nayanezgani is likewise said to
have lived in the center of the world. So, too, is the Vedic Parjanya,
described as follows in the Rig Veda: "Parjanya is the Father of the Mighty
Bird: on mountains, in earth's centre hath he made his home." The Quiche
thundergod Jurakan was called by the epithet U C'ux Caj, "Heart of the
Sky." Jurakan was the highest deity in the Quiche pantheon and he
was credited with being the "source of all energy and life in the universe."
Indeed, it was his union with the earth that initiated Creation.
The cyclone, a term that originated from the Greek kyklos, meaning 'wheel'
or 'circle', and was modified to kykloma that signifies 'wheel' or 'coil
of a snake', is defined as 'a storm or system of winds that rotates about
a center of low atmospheric pressure clockwise in the Southern hemisphere
and counterclockwise in the North…The tornado, from Latin: tornare, 'to
turn in a lathe', and also influenced by the Spanish words tornado:
'turned' or 'returned' and tronada: 'thunderstorm', is a 'violent
destructive whirlwind accompanied by a funnel-shaped cloud…" Most significant
is the intimate relationship between the whirling winds and an "eye-like"
or "wheel-like" form, reminiscent of our earlier discussion of swastika-forms.
To sum up our survey of thundergod lore to this point: the thundergod is
inextricably associated with the ancient sun-god, in ancient myth as well
as in sacred iconography. The god's lightning is said to emanate
from the region of the sun or from a celestial eye. We are not the
first to notice this connection between the sun and the thundergod.
Morris Jastrow, the great Assyriologist, observed that: "In many mythologies
the sun and lightning are regarded as correlated forces." Arthur Cook,
similarly, concluded: "The sun-god has much in common with the thunder-god."
Jehovah, I AM (Hebrew)
Brahma, Indra (Hindu)
Amoun-Ra, Osiris (Egyptian)
King Arthur (Celtic)
Sun Pin, Lei-kung (Chinese)
Great Spirit (Native American)
All of the great philosophers world-wide, including Pythagoras, Plato,
Socrates, Aristotle, Confucious, Lao-Tzu, etc. The sagacious King
Solomon; King Henry VIII of England with his numerous wives.
More recently, the economic "aristocracy" such as the Morgans, Rockefellers,
Vanderbilts, and Kennedys, even Bill Gates. Any corporate entity
or leader is an embodiment of Zeus.
A few years ago, the television show DYNASTY typified a whole pantheon
of characters. Zeus, was Blake Carrington, Captain of Industry.
His shrewish ex-wife Alexis was Hera. His father-obsessed daughter
Falon was an Athena. The son-in-law Jeff was Apollonic. Krystal
was a combination of Aphrodite and nurturing Demeter. The long-lost
son, Adam, was a shadow-ridden Trickster, linking him to Hermes.
R. Buckminster Fuller is a brilliant example of the Zeus-personality.
This magnificent mind was an interdisciplinarian and whole earth citizen.
He maintained great interest in both the abstract realm of geometry and
structure plus the environmental world of daily life. His many works,
especially SYNERGETICS 1 & 2, summarize his physico-psycho-social work
concerning optimal efficiency and cooperation.
Donald Trump revealed his philandering shadow-side. Sultan of Brunei
is the richest man in the world. The head of the federal exchange
commission has been called the most powerful man in the world because he
controls the value of U.S. currency, thereby controlling world trade situations.
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honorable, refinement, richer life, opportunity, grasp, comprehension,
reward, solution, achievement, attainment, solar plexus, comprehension,
compassion, religion, vortex of force, expansion, destiny, beneficence.
DIALOGUE WITH ZEUS
We can tap into Zeus' wisdom for personal guidance in our daily life.
Zeus was not only considered an abstract Olympian god, but also a daimon
(or mediator) on a personal level. In other words, he functions as
an inner guide for the mortals who call on him. His realm involves
the entire cycle of human fate; he is the determiner of our unique individual
destinies, delivering what we have earned through our actions. Are
we empowered, or disempowered? As dispenser of human fate, Zeus reigns
like an almighty god.
We contact Zeus when we can "see through" the events of our daily lives
to a more fundamental level. On the psychological level, Zeus appears
as the "meaning" which lights up our personal experience. For great
events, there is a correspondingly profound insight. Sudden insight
may be compared to a quantum leap in consciousness.
Zeus can be a wise and philosophical father figure for us--mentor, role
model, and authority symbol. The purpose of the father image is to
challenge us into further exploration and growth. He provides the
support that helps us to meet the challenges of becoming an individual
in our own right or becoming whole.
If we lacked this guidance as a child, we may have to re-father ourselves.
A father encourages us to find our place in the world and develop social
consciousness. He counsels us to choose a career where we may be
effective, and successful.
The positive father-complex expresses in an attitude of extroverted enthusiasm
for life. With a positive father image, we are eager to learn, comprehend,
and experience many facets of life. The positive father counsels
one to maintain an objective, long-range viewpoint which is based on wisdom
and consideration for others.
Seek the philosophical objectivity of Zeus, his insights, and divine wisdom.
Seek his paternal nurturing. He symbolizes the archetype of the Self
or Universal Mind manifesting in individuals as their fullest extension
and actualization of potential. He is pure creative energy.
Mass is "crystallized" energy. We come from Light and return to that
Light, according to the testimony of physicists and mystics, alike.
Meditate on that Light, and become it.
ZEUS IN YOUR LIFE
1. Do you feel empowered or disempowered in your life; does your
personal authority spring from internal or external sources?
2. Have you ever suffered at the shrewishness of a jealous, vindictive
3. Do you set certain limits on your personal freedom? Are
you conscious of what they are? Are you accountable to others?
Examine where these limitations might come from, i.e. fear or shyness from
Persephone, fidelity from Hera, consistency and reliability from Athena,
4. Do you believe we have any free will as humans, or do you believe
in immutable destiny or fate? How can you contact your True Will
as Zeus, or the higher Self?
5. When our ego or personality identifies with the unlimited power
of Zeus, it puffs-up to unrealistic proportions. Zeus is associated
with expansion or inflation. With a positive Zeus identification,
we expand our horizons. With a negative Zeus identification we go
on a terrible ego-trip. How does Zeus affect you positively?
Describe the biggest "ego trip" you've ever gone through, and what eventually
burst your bubble (ego death).
6. Are your philosophical by nature? Which philosophy-of-life
or philosophical school do you feel closest to in attitude? Perhaps
it is a religion. Who is (or was) you favorite philosopher?
7. If you can remember "lighting up" with a sudden insight, describe
8. Do you think you have enough confidence and self-assurance, or
are you self-defeating? Call upon your inner Zeus-potential to develop
your will, intuition, reason and leadership capacities.
9. Zeus embodies many of the qualities of a guru. Have you
ever followed a wise teacher whom you revered as a role-model?
10. Do you have a strong religious spirit? How does it affect
your behavior (restraint, justice or fairness, etc.) and emotions (compassion,
guilt, faith, love, etc.)?
11. Can you describe your personal metaphysical viewpoint by examining
the foundations of your belief system, or worldview? What are the
underlying assumed truths of these beliefs you embrace? Who are you?
Where do you come from? Where are you going? Perhaps you hold
a metaphysical interpretation of a major religion, such as Christianity
12. Do you produce many "offspring," new fruits of creative projects,
either physical results (like art) or metaphysical (like bright ideas)?
13. Do you have a weak or strong ego? Are you a "can do" person
or do you tend to fall apart in a crisis or allow others to walk all over
14. Are you considered judgmental and harsh or fair?
15. How do you react to the realistic and unrealistic expectations
of your spouse? If you are a man are you attentive to your children?
Were you when they were small? Hera likes a big, powerful man who
is competent and successful. However, there is something of the little
boy in them, also. How does your inner child balance your Zeus force?
File Created: 3/17/02
Last Updated: 7/20/02